The type and length of a lunar eclipse depend on the Moon's proximity to either node of its orbit. During a total lunar eclipse, Earth completely blocks direct sunlight from reaching the Moon. The only light reflected from the lunar surface has been refracted by Earth's atmosphere. This light appears reddish for the same reason that a sunset or sunrise does: the Rayleigh scattering of bluer light.
Due to this reddish color, a totally eclipsed Moon is sometimes called a blood moon. Unlike a solar eclipse , which can only be viewed from a relatively small area of the world, a lunar eclipse may be viewed from anywhere on the night side of Earth. A total lunar eclipse can last up to nearly 2 hours, while a total solar eclipse lasts only up to a few minutes at any given place, due to the smaller size of the Moon's shadow.
Also unlike solar eclipses, lunar eclipses are safe to view without any eye protection or special precautions, as they are dimmer than the full Moon. For the date of the next eclipse, see the section Recent and forthcoming lunar eclipses. Earth's shadow can be divided into two distinctive parts: the umbra and penumbra. Earth totally occludes direct solar radiation within the umbra, the central region of the shadow.
However, since the Sun's diameter appears about one-quarter of Earth's in the lunar sky , the planet only partially blocks direct sunlight within the penumbra, the outer portion of the shadow. A penumbral lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes through Earth's penumbra. The penumbra causes a subtle dimming of the lunar surface. A special type of penumbral eclipse is a total penumbral lunar eclipse , during which the Moon lies exclusively within Earth's penumbra. Total penumbral eclipses are rare, and when these occur, the portion of the Moon closest to the umbra may appear slightly darker than the rest of the lunar disk.
A partial lunar eclipse occurs when only a portion of the Moon enters Earth's umbra, while a total lunar eclipse occurs when the entire Moon enters the planet's umbra. The Moon's average orbital speed is about 1. Nevertheless, the total time between the first and the last contacts of the Moon's limb with Earth's shadow is much longer and could last up to four hours. The relative distance of the Moon from Earth at the time of an eclipse can affect the eclipse's duration.
In particular, when the Moon is near apogee , the farthest point from Earth in its orbit , its orbital speed is the slowest. The diameter of Earth's umbra does not decrease appreciably within the changes in the Moon's orbital distance. Thus, the concurrence of a totally eclipsed Moon near apogee will lengthen the duration of totality. A central lunar eclipse is a total lunar eclipse during which the Moon passes through the centre of Earth's shadow, contacting the antisolar point.
This type of lunar eclipse is relatively rare.
A selenelion or selenehelion occurs when both the Sun and an eclipsed Moon can be observed at the same time. This can occur only just before sunset or just after sunrise , when both bodies will appear just above the horizon at nearly opposite points in the sky. This arrangement has led to the phenomenon being also called a horizontal eclipse.
Typically, a number of high ridges undergoing sunrise or sunset can view it.
Although the Moon is in Earth's umbra, both the Sun and an eclipsed Moon can be simultaneously seen because atmospheric refraction causes each body to appear higher in the sky than their true geometric positions. The timing of total lunar eclipses are determined by its contacts: . There is often confusion between a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse.
While both involve interactions between the Sun, Earth, and the Moon, they are very different in their interactions. The Moon does not completely darken as it passes through the umbra because of the refraction of sunlight by Earth's atmosphere into the shadow cone; if Earth had no atmosphere, the Moon would be completely dark during the eclipse. Shorter wavelengths are more likely to be scattered by the air molecules and small particles ; thus, the longer wavelengths predominate by the time the light rays have penetrated the atmosphere.
Human vision perceives this resulting light as red. This is the same effect that causes sunsets and sunrises to turn the sky a reddish color. An alternative way of conceiving this scenario is to realize that, as viewed from the Moon, the Sun would appear to be setting or rising behind Earth. The amount of refracted light depends on the amount of dust or clouds in the atmosphere; this also controls how much light is scattered.
In general, the dustier the atmosphere, the more that other wavelengths of light will be removed compared to red light , leaving the resulting light a deeper red color. This causes the resulting coppery-red hue of the Moon to vary from one eclipse to the next. Volcanoes are notable for expelling large quantities of dust into the atmosphere, and a large eruption shortly before an eclipse can have a large effect on the resulting color.
Several cultures have myths related to lunar eclipses or allude to the lunar eclipse as being a good or bad omen.
The Egyptians saw the eclipse as a sow swallowing the Moon for a short time; other cultures view the eclipse as the Moon being swallowed by other animals, such as a jaguar in Mayan tradition, or a three legged toad in China. Some societies thought it was a demon swallowing the Moon, and that they could chase it away by throwing stones and curses at it. Similarly to the Mayans, the Incans believed that lunar eclipses occurred when a jaguar would eat the Moon, which is why a blood moon looks red.
The Incans also believed that once the jaguar finished eating the Moon, it could come down and devour all the animals on Earth, so they would take spears and shout at the Moon to keep it away. The ancient Mesopotamians believed that a lunar eclipse was when the Moon was being attacked by seven demons.
Penumbral LUNAR Eclipse July 5, , at at 13° Capricorn 38′; Penumbral planets and points at approximately 18 to 28 degrees of the Mutable signs (Gemini, It starts out small, but has bigger consequences than you'd think. Many astrologers believe that the effects of a Lunar eclipse last . Eclipse January 5 at at 15° Capricorn 25; Total SOLAR Eclipse July 2 at Penumbral LUNAR Eclipse July 5 at at 13° Capricorn
This attack was more than just one on the Moon, however, for the Mesopotamians linked what happened in the sky with what happened on the land, and because the king of Mesopotamia represented the land, the seven demons were thought to be also attacking the king. In order to prevent this attack on the king, the Mesopotamians made someone pretend to be the king so they would be attacked instead of the true king.
After the lunar eclipse was over, the substitute king was made to disappear possibly by poisoning. In some Chinese cultures, people would ring bells to prevent a dragon or other wild animals from biting the Moon. The year is hosting two solar eclipses and four lunar eclipses, hence, a total of 6 eclipses. They will all affect different places, as mythological beliefs say.
Get the answer to all your questions about these eclipses here. Like, what should we do to avoid the malefic effects of the eclipse Grahan Dosha? What precautions should be taken during an eclipse? How to nullify the influence of Sutak? And so on. The very first Solar eclipse of will occur on 21 June. The speciality of this is that it will be an annular Solar eclipse. In this, the Moon, instead of blanketing the entire Sun, will cover only its centre.
The second and last Solar eclipse of will occur on December. This will be a total eclipse, in which the Moon will completely cover the Sun. As mentioned above, this year will witness four lunar eclipses, all of which are Penumbral Lunar Eclipse. A Penumbral Lunar eclipse corresponds to the time when the Moon passes through the penumbra of the Earth; thus, subtly dimming the lunar surface.
Information about all four eclipses is given below:. The first Lunar Eclipse of the year will fall on 11 January. It will be visible only in some parts of Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.
The Second Lunar Eclipse of the year will occur on 6 June. This will be visible in Europe, as well as parts of Africa, Asia, and Australia. The fourth and the last Lunar Eclipse of the year will fall on 30 November It is believed that, during the solar and lunar eclipses, there is a specified inauspicious time, called Sutak Kaal. Anything done during this time offers only negative effects and adverse results. As a result, many tasks are considered forbidden in this Kaal.
Cut yourself some slack in the run-up to Christmas. Hold off on beginning new ventures at eclipse time. It favours recovery and the restoration of health. Lunar Mansion 21, Al-Baldah Enmity, argument and conflict. Later, when Mars, the warrior planet, takes the same route as the eclipse did and reaches that scab, at the same mathematical degree and sign as the eclipse, something may happen. Good ways to use this eclipse include accepting the grace of blessing to become a leader in some way and being alertly ready to act without falling into confusion or drifting.
However, several remedies performed in Sutak Kaal ensures that its harmful effects do not impact our lives. The Sutak period is associated with doing or not doing specific tasks. The duration between one sunrise and the other is divided into 8 Prahars. These eight prahars together come up to a total of 24 hours. Thus, one prahar is of approximately 3 hours. If the Solar or Lunar Eclipse is visible, then the Sutak Kaal is said to be valid in that area; otherwise, it is considered void.
The Sutak Kaal is of 4 prahars in a Solar Eclipse and thus begins precisely 12 hours before the eclipse. On the other hand, it is of 3 prahars during a Lunar Eclipse. Hence, the Sutak Kaal commences precisely 9 hours before the Lunar Eclipse. In both cases, the Sutak ends as the eclipse ends. A new life forms in the womb of pregnant women. Therefore, they should take special care during an eclipse, to keep their baby safe from the negative aspect of Rahu and Ketu. They should avoid tasks like sewing, weaving, embroidery, etc. One should chant the following mantras during the eclipse.
Doing so will negate the adverse effects of the eclipse. The Solar Eclipse is an astronomical event. For any eclipse to occur, the three celestial bodies; the Sun, Moon, and Earth, need to fall in a straight line during their respective revolutions. As a result of this, it obstructs the light of the Sun from reaching Earth. Additionally, if the Moon completely covers the Sun, then that event is known as a Total Solar Eclipse.
When the dark silhouette of the Moon completely covers the Sun, obstructing its bright light, then it is known as a Total Solar Eclipse.